Once therapists took pride in being non-directive. Now therapists are struggling to learn how to give directives to cause a change. Training programs in directives are difficult to find. Directives include telling someone what to do in a straightforward manner as well as indirect suggestions. Therapists can restrain someone from changing and so use paradox. There are also metaphors and other types of directives to change. Jay Haley specializes in Directive Therapy.